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Creator=Federico Fellini. tomatometer=7,3 of 10 star. 83minute. country=Italy. Rating=4610 votes. release year=1952. Skip to Main Content Skip to Search Skip to Dropdowns Rotten Tomatoes What's the Tomatometer®? Critics Skip to Trending Bar Movies & DVDs TV News Tickets & Showtimes Trending on RT Golden Tomato Awards Every Best Picture Ranked 43 Video Game Movies Ranked 2020's Most Anticipated Movies Highest Rated: 100% Leila (1999) Lowest Rated: Birthday: May 19, 1930 Birthplace: Not Available Highest Rated Movies Leila Skip to Quotes Filmography Movies Credit Reza's Mother — 1999 No Score Yet Travellers Actor 1992 QUOTES FROM Jamileh Sheikhi CHARACTERS No quotes approved yet. Home Box Office DVD My Account.


Tetri ( Georgian: თეთრი) is a fractional currency used in the country of Georgia. It was put into circulation in 1995. The name tetri ("white") was adopted from the term describing golden, silver or copper coins known in ancient and medieval Georgia. The plural of the term "tetri" is "tetrebi. " However, the Georgian language uses the singular form when the quantity is specified, so in practice the plural of "tetri" is just "tetri. " In some instances tetri is informally referred to as "kapiki", derived from the Russian fractional currency kopek from the Soviet era. 100 tetri = 1 lari. Image gallery [ edit] Modern coins minted in the Republic of Georgia (should be displayed approximately at the effective coin size, if the images are rendered at 3. 78 pixels per millimeter, or 96 pixels per inch). 1 tetri (minted in 1993) diameter: 15. 0 mm (thickness: 1. 25 mm) stainless steel (1. 38 g) 2 tetri (minted in 1993) diameter: 17. 5 mm (thickness: 1. 90 g) 5 tetri (minted in 1993) diameter: 20. 32 mm) stainless steel (2. 50 g) 10 tetri (minted in 1993) diameter: 22. 27 mm) stainless steel (3. 00 g) 20 tetri (minted in 1993) diameter: 25. 62 mm) stainless steel (5. 00 g) 50 tetri (minted in 1993) diameter: 19. 40 mm) copper (2. 50 g) 50 tetri (minted in 2006) diameter: 24. 0 mm (thickness: unknown) copper-nickel alloy (6. 50 g).

The name Fellini brings to mind some of the great films of the 20th century; La Dolce Vita, La Strada, and 8 1/2 come to mind. However, every legend has a beginning, and Fellini's was here. Here, we see the neo-realist influence that affected most of his early work, and it works perfectly to capture the hustle and bustle of the city of Rome as well as tell the story of a newlywed couple on a perfect honeymoon with a not-so perfect relationship.
Fellini does remarkable work in cutting back and forth between the travels of the bride as she seeks out her favorite soap opera star, The White Sheik, and that of the groom desperately trying to impress his family. It gives a sense that even if dreams seem more fun and desirable than the real world we live in, it is not always perhaps the most beneficial path. This is a theory that seemed to change with time as Fellini's films became more dream-like, but here it is apparent that realism reigns, at least for this awe-struck couple.

We use cookies to offer you a better experience, personalize content, tailor advertising, provide social media features, and better understand the use of our services. To learn more or modify/prevent the use of cookies, see our Cookie Policy and Privacy Policy. Information about the side-effects of pesticides on biological control agents is an essential requirement of integrated pest management (IPM). Different methods to test the effects of pesticides on natural enemies have been used and new methods are being developed. In the past, evaluations were mostly based on individual level (lethal or sublethal) endpoints. Differences in the used methods and the measured endpoints make it difficult to compare the results. There is increasing emphasis on using standard methods to combine the lethal and sublethal effects to a total effect. Especially, population-level effects or demographic toxicology has been concluded as a better measure because of its ecological relevance and is the current centre of attention. Very recently, molecular and biochemical methods, primarily, have been developed for detecting potential damage to populations at early stages. But these types of responses (i. e. biomarkers) to toxic stress are only demographically relevant if the response can be linked to effects at higher organism levels. We describe the methods used to study the effects of pesticides on beneficial arthropods and the current status of the evaluation of side-effects. We also provide new suggestions. In addition to methodological discussion, in the last part we presented a table containing summary database on the effect of key classes of commonly used pesticides on various natural enemies. This data may be helpful for researchers or IPM users. Received: 15 May, 2008. Accepted: 17 Septem ber, 2008. Invite d Review Pest T echnology ©2008 Global Science Books Impacts of Pesticides on Arthropod Biological Contr ol Agents Khalil T alebi * • Aurang Kavousi • Qodrat Sabahi Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of T ehran, Karaj 3158711167, Iran Corresponding author: * khtalebi@ ABST RAC T Information about the side -effects of pe sticides on biological con trol agents is an essential require ment of integrated pest m a nagement (IPM). Different m ethods to test the ef fects of pesticides on na tural enemies hav e been used and new me thods are being develope d. In the past, evaluations w ere mostly based on in dividual level (lethal or sublethal) endpoi nts. Differenc es in the used methods and th e measured endpoints make it dif ficult to compa re the results. There is inc reasing emphasis on usi ng standard me thods to combine the letha l and sublethal effe cts to a total effect. Especi ally, population-level eff ects or demographic tox icology has been conclu ded as a bet ter measure because of its ecological relevance and is the cu rrent centre of attention. Very recently, molecu lar and biochemical methods, p rimarily, have been developed for detecting potent ial damage to popula tions at early stages. But these type s of responses (i. biomarker s) to t oxic stress are only de mographically relev ant if the response can be linked to ef fects at higher or ganism levels. W e describe the me thods used to study the eff ects of pesticides on beneficial a rthropods and the c urrent status of the e valuation of side- effects. W e also p rovide new suggestions. In additi on to methodological discussion, in the last part w e presented a table containing summ ary database on the effect of key classes of comm onl y used pesticides on various natural enem ies. This data may be helpful for researc hers or IPM users. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Keywords: biomarker, demographic t oxicology, natural enemies, side-effects, total effect Abbreviations: BART, bene ficial arthropod regulatory testing; Bt, Bacillus thuringiensis; CEA, cellular ener gy allocation; DT, doubling time; ECx, the concentration causing an effect of x per cent; EPPO, European and Mediterranea n Plant Protection Org anization; ETS, electron transport system; EU, European Un ion; FAO, Food an d Agriculture Organi zation; ICES, International Council for the Exploration of the Se a; IGRs, insect growth regula tors; IOBC, International Or ganization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants; IOBC/WPRS, Int ernational Organization for Biolog ical Control of Noxious Animals and Plants/W est Palearctic Regional Secti on; IPM, integrated pest manag ement; LC50, median lethal concent ration; LD50, median lethal d ose; LT R E s, life table response experiments; OECD, Org anization for Economic Co-O peration Developm ent; NEC, no effect concentration; NOEC, no observed effect concentration; NOEL, no observed effect level; PBO, piperonyle butoxide CONTENTS INTRODUCT ION........................................................................................................................................................................................ 87 METHODS OF EV ALUA TING SIDE-EFFECTS OF PEST ICIDES.......................................................................................................... 88 Pre-registration research.......................................................................................................................................................................... 88 Post-registration research......................................................................................................................................................................... 88 Individual-level eff ects........................................................................................................................................................................ 88 Acute toxicity tests......................................................................................................................................................................... 88 Chronic toxicity tests...................................................................................................................................................................... 89 Tota l effects......................................................................................................................................................................................... 89 IOBC methods................................................................................................................................................................................ 89 Life table studies............................................................................................................................................................................ 89 Biomarkers.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 90 EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT CLASSES OF PE STICIDES ON BIOCONT ROL AG ENTS......................................................................... 93 CONCLU SION............................................................................................................................................................................................ 94 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS......................................................................................................................................................................... 94 REFERENCES............................................................................................................................................................................................. 94 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ INTRODUCTION The significance of biological control (BC) agents for the management of agricultural pests has been in creasingly realized during the last three decades; however BC is not a panacea for all pest problems. The integration of biological and chemical control agents is more effective for the man- agement of insect pests. In fact, pesticides and BC agents are two important com-ponents of integrated pest manag e- ment (IPM). But the use of pesticides must be compatible with the other age nts of pest mana gement. Most co ntact in- secticides from different chemical classes are broad spec- trum and so affect both prey an d predator. A few physiolo- gically selective pesticides from each class are available that may be used in IPM. A physiologically selective pesti- cide is one that is toxic to some pests, but has little o r no effect on other similar species. Ecological selectivity, on the other hand, can be accomplished by manipulation of the pesticide formulation, timing of application, method of ap- plication, spatial distribution of treatment, and other means (Croft 1990) Pesticides have direct and indirect effects on benef icial arthropods. Studies on the direct effect of pesticides are don e by measurement of toxicity to benef icial arthropods and ® Pest Technology 2 (2), 87-97 ©2008 Global Science Books determination of the median lethal dose (LD50) or lethal concentration (LC50). In the past, com parison of LD50 or LC50 values of insecticides to both BC agents and pe sts was vastly used to estimate selectivity. Based on LD50 benefi- cial arthropods are even more susceptible to insecticides than insect pests. Because these evaluations focus on a sin- gle life stage and generally for a short duration of time (often 1-4 days), the results of these bioassays do not ac- curately assess the total effects of a pesticide on an exposed population (Stark and Banken 2000). Theref ore, in order to determine the total effect of a pesticide, one has to take into account the indirect or sublethal effects of pesticides, too. Sublethal doses of pesticides can affect the physiology and behavior of the BC agents. Different methods to test sublethal effects on n atural enemies are being developed. Effects su ch as altered beha- vior, reduced reproduction, and reduced longevity of n on- target organisms are the conspicuous consequences of sub- lethal doses. These effects may be seen in different dev e- lopmental stages of n on-target arthropods. Like mortality, sublethal effects can severely reduce the perf ormance of BC agents (Elzen et al. 1989; Roger et al. 1995). By fa r, de- mography or life table response experim e nts (LTREs) have been suggested as a desirable means to evaluate the total ef- fect of pesticides on natural enemies. LTREs take into ac- count all effects that a toxicant might have at the levels of organization higher than the individual (Stark et al. 1997, 1998, 2004). The advantage of this ap-proach is that a total measure of the effect is determined that incorporates lethal and sublethal effects into one end-point, the intrinsic rate of natural increase (Stark et al. 1998; Stark and Banks 2000, 2004). Most traditional pesti-cides are broad-s pectrum organic compounds that wipe out populations of beneficial as well as different pests. That is because almost all four groups of traditional insecticides targeted the nervous system, which is biochemically similar in beneficial and pests (van Emden 1996; Rechcigl and Rech cigl 2000). The literature on natural enemy/pesticide research has grown rapidly since the mid 1970s. Excellent rev iews and books have been publish ed during the last 30 years (Croft and Brown 1975; Smith and S tratton 1986; Croft 1990; Stark and Banks 2003; Desneux et al. 2007). Generally most traditional insecticide classes such as orga nophos- phates, carbamates and synthetic pyrethroids are highly toxic to beneficial arthropods. Therefore it is hard to find a true selective compound amo ng traditional toxic insecti- cides. In many crops the most widely used ins ecticide class is now the organophosphates. Som e organophosphates are somewhat selective. The mite predators ( Neoseiul us falla- cies, German) of orchard spider mites have acqu ired their own resistance to organophosphates. On the other hand, partial selectivity can be attained in application when take advantage of formulations. Sy stemic organophosphate in- secticides such as demeton-s-methyl, dimethoate an d ace- phate are selective for natural enemies of aphids and mites. The carbamate insecticide pirimicarb is toxic to aphids an d Diptera, yet not to other insects at equivalent doses (van Emden 1996). The organochlorine en dosulfan is selective for Hymeonoptera which include valuable BC agents. Some newer classes of insecticides such as pyrethroids are ex- tremely toxic to insects. However, even in this class of in- secticide a single compound such as fluvalinate is selective for honeybees (Hill 1985; Walter et al. 1988). The newly marketed insecticides with a novel m ode of action are less toxic to beneficial arthropods. Azadirachtin, indoxacarb, spinosad and pymetrozine are extremely toxic to target pests, while significantly less toxic to natural ene- mies (Boyd and Boethel 1998; Babul Hossain and Poehling 2006). The selectivity and low toxicity make them conveni- ent for utility in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). The type of formulation affects their toxicity to non-target orga- nism including natural enemies. Some formulations are less toxic to beneficial insects and mites. For example granule and soil-applied formulations are less toxic than spray simply because they do not leave a residue on the leaf sur- face. Systemic pesticides injected or applied to soil pose minimal hazard to beneficial arthropods. Wettable p owders and microencapsulated formulations are the most toxic. The aim of this paper is to review the development of methods for measurement and interpretation of the side- effects of pesticides on BC agents. Aspect of this topic such as interpretation of standardized side-effect testing, lethal, sublethal, and multiple endpoints are discussed. The second part of the review is concerned with the impact of indivi- dual pesticide classes on selected natural enemies. In this part we summarize the results of some toxicity testing using different methods in a table. METHODS OF EV ALUATING SIDE-EFFECT S OF PESTICIDES Scientific methods are needed to assess the risk of pesti- cides on natural enemies and apply as pre-registration tools as well as determine the compatibility with IPM after regis- tration (Stark et al. 1995; Jepson and Croft 1998). V arious types of pesticide effects on arthropod biocon- trol agents have been studied and reviewed several times (Croft 1990; Stark and Bank s 2003; Desneux et al. Different methods and en dpoints used to study the ef- fects of pesticides and the current statuses as well as the new suggestions are disc ussed below. Pre-registration rese arch Data on physiology and t oxicology of arthropod natu ral enemies has been mainly extrapolat ed from phytophagous species and there is not enough knowledge in this respect. On the other hand effective methods to study the side-ef- fects of pesticides at earlier stages of their develop ment and early detection of potential hazards have not been deve- loped. These problems are considered as the reasons for lim- ited research in the pesticide development process (Jepson and Croft 1998). However, specific guidelines have been developed in order to test side-eff ects for registration of plant protection products. The Organization for Economic Co-Operation Development (OECD) with 30 member coun- tries worldwide has develop ed guidelines for registrat ion requirements of vari ous products (OECD, 2002, 2003). In the European Union (EU) it is currently conducted ac- cording to the Council Directive of 91/414/EEC. The Fede- ral Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) is followed in the United States (Candolfi et al. 2000; Des- neux et al. Post-registration rese arch Individual-level effects Toxic su bstances can cause changes at all levels of biologi- cal organizatio n from mole cular to c ommunity (H yne and Maher 2003). Traditional m ethods based on individual level endpoints are dominant in the literature. Acute and chronic toxicity tests are the two focal ways to study the impacts of pesticides on individuals. Acute toxicity tests LD50 or LC50, have been used mostly to measure the toxic effects of pesticides on be neficial arth ropods (Desneux 2007). LD50 is an estimate of the dose that cau ses 50% morta- lity of a group of individuals un der test. A sigmoid curve is fitted to the number of survivors as a function of the dose of toxicant. This curve is usually the log-logistic or log-probit curve (Finney 1971). In some cases th e exact dose origin- ally given to the insect (e. g. larval stage of aquatic insects) cannot be determined but the concentration of the insecti- cide in the peripheral media can, so that the LC50 is used (Matsumura 1985). LD50 have also been used to estimate the selectivity ratios (LD50 of the beneficial/pest arthro- 88 Impacts of pesticides on arthro pod biological control agents. Talebi et al. pods) (Croft 1990). Acute toxicity tests use single endpoint (mortality) and are performed during short duration (1 to 4 days in many cases) (W althall and Stark 1997). This kind of studies has been used on both parasitoids and predat ors (Rosenheim and Hoy 1988; Mizell and Sconyers 1992; Hamilton and Lashomb 1997; Desn eux et al. 2003). Chronic toxicity tests Besides lethal effects pesticides may cause some importa nt sublethal effects on individuals that survive the toxicant exposure. Short-term acute toxicity tests usually ignore this kind of effects (Laskowski 2001). Some ex amples of end- points of interest in chronic studies are fecundity, body size, development rate, be havior, sex ratio, and longe vity (Des- neux 2007). For risk assessment purposes there is a need to deter- mine low or no toxic effect leve ls (van Leeu wen and Her- mens 1995; Koojman et al. 1996; de Bruijn and Hof 1997; van der Hoeven 1997). Several measures have been pro- posed to use as estimates for these concentrations. NOEC (no observed effect concentration), NOEL ( no observed effect level), ECx (the concentration causing an effect of x per cent), and NEC (no ef fect concentration) can be applied to various endpoints of sublethal eff ects. The negative and positive aspects of these measures have been previously discussed (Moore and Caux 1997; van der Hoe- ven 1997; Crane and Newman 2000; van der Hoeven 2004). Total effects One of the limitations of traditional methods is that sub- lethal and lethal effects are not combin ed and thus the total effect of a pesticide is not determined (Stark and W enner- gren 1995). Several efforts have been made and methods have been introduced to solve this problem. T hese efforts and methods are described below. IOBC methods These methods were developed by the ‘ p esticides and bene- ficial organisms’ working group of the I nternational Organi - zation for Biological Control (IOBC). The working group was founded in 1974 and its major aim was to encourage the development of standard methods for testing th e side- effects of pesticides on natu ral enemies to support the IPM. A further aim was therefore to test the side-effects of com- monly used pesticides o n the most impor tant natural ene- mies (Hassan 1998a). The group established cooperation with other internatio- nal organizations such as the Beneficial Arthropod Regula- tory Testing (BART), the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO), the European Union (EU), and the Food and Agriculture Org anization (F AO) (Hassan 1998b). The IOBC method has been designed to ev aluate the acute residual toxicity as well as sublethal effects of pesti- cides on reproductive performance (V ogt et al. 2000). The mean mortality (M) and average fecundity (R) are measured and then the total effects of the pesticides (E%) are calcu- lated by the formula proposed by Ov ermeer and V an Zon (1982): E%= 100 -(100-M) × R× 100. There are several works in which this formula have been used to take into account both lethal and sublethal ef- fects on the reproductive perform a nce (Oomen et al. 1991; Blümel et al. 2000; Van de V eire et al. 2002; Kavousi and Talebi 2003; Rezaei et al. 20 07; Sáenz-de-Cabezón Irigaray et al. Based on the total effects the pesticides are classif ied using IOBC evaluatio n categories (Sterk et al. 1999). Recognizing that no single test method would provide sufficient information to assess the side-effects of pesticid es on a beneficial organism, a combination of tests is recom- mended. The IOBC suggests a sequential scheme in which pesticides are first tested in the laboratory. If no meaningful effect is observed, they are considered com patible for use in IPM programs. In the case of a meaningful adverse ef fect in the laboratory, tests are further performed under semi-field conditions. If significant effects are still observed in this tier a more complex field study is considered to assess the im- pact of the pesticide under realistic field conditions. Com- pounds with no significant adverse effects in the semi-field and field experiments are recommended f or use in IPM (Dohmen 1998). Laboratory experiments are condu cted under ‘worst case’ conditions which aims to ensure a maximum exposure of the organisms to the test substance. In the semi-field tests no extreme exposure, as in the laboratory tests, is applied; however, a realistic worst case with respect to exposure is simulated. In the last stage, extensive field tests may be em- ployed. Oomen et al. (1991) reported the s ide-effects of 100 pesticides on the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persi milis using a combination of laboratory, semi-field and field tests. Va n d e Ve i r e et al. (2002) described laboratory to field se- quential testing scheme for testing side effects of pesticides on anthocorid bugs using Or ius laevigatus as the test spe- cies. The ‘pesticides and beneficial organism s’ w orking group of the IOBC develops st andard methods based on la- boratory to field tests to evaluate the s ide-effects of pesti- cides on important beneficial organism s. Joint pesticide tes- ting programs by members of th e working group have been organized every tw o years since 1977. Since 1980, the re- sults of seven joint pesticide testing programs carried out by the IOBC/WPRS-W orking Group ‘Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms’ have been published. Within these seven prog- rams more than 120 pesticides h ave been tested on various beneficial organi sms including arthropod nat ural enemies using laboratory, semi-field and field methods (Sterk et al. Stark et al. ( 2007) have criticized IOBC approach and argued that the ecological relevan ce of IOBC methods is questionable. Life table studies To better estim ate the side-effects of pesticides there is an increasing attention and awareness to use more realistic endpoints. Demography or L TREs have been suggested as the best way to combine lethal and sublethal effects and use to estimate the total effects of pesticides (Daniels and Allan 1981; Bechmann 1994; S tark and W ennergren 1995; Stark et al. 1998; Forbs and Calow 1999; Stark and Banks 2003; Robertson et al. 2007; Stark et al. Experiments in which life tables, or more generally a set of vital rates, are the dependent variable are called L TREs. Demographic to- xicological analysis incorporates survivorship and repro- duction of test org anisms into one endpoint (i. population growth rate) (Caswell 2000). Population growth rate is expressed as intrinsic rate of increase (r) or finite rate of increase ( = e r). T o calculate the population growth rate, life tables are constructed using a cohort of the test organism exposed to the tox icant. The probability that a new individual is alive at age x (l x) and the number of female offsprin g produced by a female with attributed x (m x) are recorded. From these two functions, the Maltusian parameter (population growth rate), r, is cal- culated using Euler’s equation: Positive values of r indicate an exponential population increase, the value equal to zero indicates the stable state of a population, and r values less than zero indicate that the population is declining exponentially and heading to extinc- tion (Carey 1993). The rate of increase of a population can also be g ene- rated using matrix algebra. In this method the age distribu- tion of the population at time t (N t), considered as a column ³ f  0 1 x rx x x dx e m l 89 Pest Technology 2 (2), 87-97 ©2008 Global Science Books vector (n t) is multiplied by a transition matrix referred to as Leslie’ s matrix or population projection matrix (L) to get the age distribution at time t+1 (N t+1): » » » » ¼ º « « « « ¬ ª     1, 3 1, 2 1, 1 1, 0 t t t t n n n n = » » » » ¼ º « « « « ¬ ª 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 3 2 1 0 s s s f f f f » » » » ¼ º « « « « ¬ ª t t t t n n n n, 3, 2, 1, 0 f x = Age-specific fecundity, s x = Age-specific survival rate, n x = Number of individuals of age x. Repeated iterations of the multiplication of the popula- tion vector and the transition matrix result in a st able popu- lation vector (stable age distribution). At this condition the population is multiplied by a constant factor per time inter- val. This factor, the dominant eigenvalue of the pr ojection matrix, is the finite rate of increase (). An alternative population growth rate, the ins tantaneous rate of increase (r i) has been introduced that s implifies the gathering of population-level data. It reflects th e actual growth of a population and is calcu lated by the following equation: where N f is the final number of animals, N 0 is the initial number of animals and T is the change in tim e (Walthall and Stark 1997). To date m o st life table data have been collected using only the female indivi duals. Chi (1988, 2005) introdu ced new method to conduct life tables us ing both females and males (age-stage, two-sex life table analysis) and developed computer software to calculate the life table parameters. All above mentioned popu lation growth rates measu re the numerical aspects of population. A new popu lation level index has been proposed (van Straalen and Kammenga 1998) that measures the qualitative aspects of the popu la- tion. This index named ‘i ntrinsic biomass tur nover’ mea- sures the productivity of the population (rate of which bio- mass is produced, relative to the biomass present). Advantages of measuring population level effects Several authors have emphasized the priority of population level effects in comparison to various individual level end- points. The greatest value of the use of population para- meters lies in their ecological relevance, and the possibility of summarizing a variety of possible effects in the course of a life-cycle by a single measure (Daniels and Allan 1981; Allan and Daniels 1982; St ark et al. 1997; Stark et al. 1998; Kammenga and Laskowski 2000; Stark and Banks 2003). Forbs and Calow (1999) reviewed the literatu re and concluded that population growth rate is a better measure of response to toxicants than the individu al-level endpoints. Their reasoning was that it integrates potentially complex interactions among life-history traits and provides a more relevant measure of ecological impact. They also men tioned that r makes it possible to evaluate the conflicting effects of toxicants on survival and reproduction. For example, it has been demonstrated that aph ids could maintain high population growth rates after expos ure to LC60 (W althall and Stark 1997). On the other hand Bech- mann (1994) showed that in some cases the dem o graphic parameters may be affected by sublethal concentrations (32% of LC50). It has been demons trated that in such cases the extinction of population may occurs by sublethal con- centrations. Thus, short-term acute toxicity tests may over- estimate or underestimate the effects of diff erent pesticides. This shows the necessity of conducting long-term assays (e. life table studies) to find the realistic results on im- pacts of pesticides. Another advantage of studying th e ef- fects of toxic substances on populations rather than indivi- duals can be seen in case of compoun ds like insect growth regulators (IGRs) whic h have slow action. T his kind of pro- ducts cannot be adequately evaluated using short-term labo- ratory tests based on individual level en dpoints (Stark et al. 1998; Sáenz-de-Cabezón et al. 2006). (1997, 1998) showed that diff erent species may show similar acute susceptibility to certain pesticides while their responses at population level are very different. Bes ides, Kim et al. (2006) showed that different pesticides may cause compara- ble acute toxicity but completely different total effect on a known species. Biomarkers Toxic su bstances can cause changes at all levels of biologi- cal organizatio n from mole cular to c ommunity (H yne and Maher 2003). Processes at one level take their mechanisms from the level below and find their consequences at the level above. The ecological relevance increases from the sub-cellular to the ecosystem level (De Coen 1999). As mentioned above, several authors ha ve suggested tha t stu- dying population level effects of toxicants by use of demo- graphic toxicological analysis is the best approach and pro- vides a more relevant measure of ecological impact. In demographic toxicology both l ethal and sublethal ef fects are combined into one integrative parameter, th e intrinsic rate of increase (r m) (Bechmann 1994; S tark and Wenner - gren 1995; Forbs and Ca low 1999; Stark an d Banks 2003). The major disadvantage to the use of dem o graphic toxico- logy is that development of life table data is expensive and time consuming (Forbs and Calow 1999; Stark and Banks 2003). In addition, an understanding of the population level effects of a toxicant without un derstanding of the damage that a toxicant causes at biochemical level and knowledge of how it is causing these effects is not enough (Stark and Banks 2000). Kammenga and Laskowsk i (2000) refer to the relationship between toxicant-induced biochemical or cel- lular alternations (i. biomarker responses) and subs equent demographic changes as a pressing problem in ecotoxico- logy. Biomarkers are useful as markers for both exposure and effect in organisms (Pretti and C ognetti-V arriale 2001) and could be used in monitoring for ef fects before they reach the population or community levels (Lagadic et al. 1994). Invertebrate biomarkers and their us e in monitoring of ecosystem quality have been reviewed and the lack of knowledge on the linkages between biomarker and popu la- tion level responses has been highlighted. The potential use of biomarkers related to energy metabolism for predicting effects of stressors on population structure and dynamics have been mentioned by several authors (Lagad ic et al. 1994; De Coen and Janssen 1997; Lag adic 1999; De Coen et al. 2000; V erslycke and Janssen 2002; De C oen and Janssen 2003). Bio-energ etic or physiological energetic, in general, offer t he advantage to provid e information o n key processes in the organism ’s energy acquisition and expendi- ture, possibly also elucidating the mode of action of the toxicant. Moreover, changes in the energy metabolism, in general, will ultimately influence the future life characteris- tics of an organism (De Coen et al. The response of biomarkers to toxic stress is only demogr aphically relevant if the response can be linked to eff ects at higher organism levels, such as individual (life-cycle traits) or population level (Kammenga and Laskowsk i 2000). Recently a biomarker has been developed based on “metabolic cost” hypothesis called Cellular Energy Alloca- tion (CEA). This methodology could provide an integrative quantification of th e organism’ s energy budget based on a biochemical comparison of the organism’ s energy consump- tion and the energy reserv es available for metabolism (De Coen et al. Energ y consumption is determined by measuring the electron transport activity (E TS activity) which is a biochemical measure of the potential metabolic activity and is nearly universal in all organisms (Packard et al. 1971). The energy reserves are determined by measuring the total lipid, protein and carbohydrate cont ent of the test t t N L N u  1 T N N r f i ' /) / ln( 0 90 Impacts of pesticides on arthro pod biological control agents. Tab le 1 Impact of selected pes ticide groups on cert ain natural enemi es. Reference Method Impact Biological con trol agent Pesticide Organochlorine insectid es Edwards and Thompson1973 Contact toxici ty Relatively no n toxic Acarina spp. Dieldrin Easwaramoorthy et a l. 1990 Residual test Highly toxic Sturmiopsis inferens Lindane Price and Schuster 1991 Contact toxicity Relatively non toxic Encarsia sp. ; Aleurodi philus sp. Price and Schuster 1991 Contact toxicity Harmful Encarsia sp. Endosulfan Vie ira et al. 2001 Residual test Delaying pre imaginal development Trichogramma cordubensis Organophosph orous and carbamates Vill anueva and W algenbach 2005 Leaf disk Moderately toxic Neoseiulus fal lacis Azinphosme thyl Wil kin son et al. 2001 Residual test Harmful Bassus dimidiat or Azinphosme thyl Galvan et al. 200 6a T opical application a nd insecticide residues Harmful Harmonia axy ridis Carbaryl Easwaramoorthy et a l. 1990 Residual test Harmless Sturmiopsis inferens Carbaryl+L indane Sevidol ® Easwaramoorthy et a l. 1990 Soil applicatio n Harmless Sturmiopsi s inferens Carbofu ran James et al. 2005 Foliar application Harmless Phytoseiid mites Chlorpyrifos Prischmann et al. 2005 Residue test Harmful Phytoseiid mites Barbar et al. 2007 Residue test Harmful T yphlodromus exhil arates T. phialatus Chlorpyripho s –ethyl Sheikhi-Garjan 2 000 To pical application Harmful Trissolchus grandis Diazinon Easwaramoorthy et a l. 1990 Residual test Highly toxic Sturmiopsis inferens Dimethoate Booth et al. 2007 Direct appli cation Harmful Micromus tasma niae Kohno et al. 2007 Direct applica tion Harmless Labidura riparia Grützmacher et al. 2004 Residual test Harmful Trichogramma cacoecia e Fenthion Kavousi and Talebi 2003 Residual test Harmless Phytoseiulus per similis Heptenophos Easwaramoorthy et a l. 1990 Residual test Highly toxic Sturmiopsis inferens Malathion Sabahi et al. 2 002 Residual test Harmful Bathyplectes curculionissss W akgari and Gil iomee 2003 Direct spray Harmfull Coccidoxenoid es peregri nus Methidathion W akgari and Gil iomee 2001 Direct spray Harmful Aprostocetus ceroplastae Metho myl W akgari and Gil iomee 2003 Direct spray Harmful Coccidoxenoides per egrinus W akgari and Gil iomee 2003 Direct spray Harmful Coccidoxenoides per egrinus Methyl-parathio n Easwaramoorthy et a l. 1990 Residual test Highly toxic Sturmiopsis inferens Monocrotophos W akgari and Gil iomee 2003 Direct spray Harmful Coccidoxenoides per egrinus Parathion Sabahi et al. 2 002 Residual test Moderat ely harmful Bathyplectes curculionissss Phosalone Umoru and Po well 2002 Contact toxicity Affects repro ductive performance Diaeretiella rapae Pirimicarb Farag and Gesraha 2007 Direct applicatio n Slightly harmful Diaertiella rapa e Cabral et al. 2008 Direct spray Harmless Coccinell a undecimpunctata Kavousi and Talebi 2003 Residual test Harmful Phytoseiulu s persimilis Pirimiphos-methyl W akgari and Gil iomee 2003 Direct spray Harmful Coccidoxenoides per egrinus Profenofos W akgari and Gil iomee 2003 Direct spray Harmful Coccidoxenoides per egrinus Prothiofos Easwaramoorthy et a l. 1990 Residual test Highly toxic Sturmiopsis inferens Quinalphos Grützmacher et al. 2004 Residual test Harmful Trichogramma cacoecia e Trichlor fon Artificial Pyrethroids Galvan et al. 200 6a T opical application a nd insecticide residues Harmful Harmonia axy ridis Bifenthrin Sak et al. 2006 Rearing on diet con- taining subl ethal dose Affects total body weight Pimpla turionella e Cyperme thrin Easwaramoorthy et a l. 1990 Residual test Moderately harmful Sturmiopsis inferens Decamethrin Garcia et al. 2006 Indirect spray Reducing parasitism rate Trichogramma cordubensis Deltamethri n Price and Schuster 1991 Contact toxicity Harmful Encarsia sp. Esfenvalarate Vill anueva and W algenbach 2005 Leaf disk Highly toxic Neoseiulus fal lacis Vill anueva and W algenbach 2005 Residual test Moderately harmful Neoseiulus fal lacis Fenpropathr in He i dari et al. 2004 Di pping method Harmful Encarsia formosa Fenpropathrin Vill anueva and W algenbach 2005 Leaf disk Moderately toxic Neoseiulus fal lacis Easwaramoorthy et a l. 1990 Residual test Highly toxic Sturmiopsis inferens Fenvalerate Booth et al. 2007 Direct appli cation To xi c Micromus tasmaniae Lambda-cyhal othrin Kohno et al. 2007 Direct applica tion Harmless Labidura riparia Kobori and Amano 2004 Residual test Harmful Aphidius gifue nsis Permethrin Microbials Carvalho et a l. 2003 Residual test Harmful Trichogr amma preti osum Abamectin Nadimi et al. 2008 Residual test Harmful Phytoseiulu s persimilis; Phytoseiulus plu mifer Brunner et al. 2001 To pical application Ha rmful Colpoclypeus fl orus Trichogramm a platneri Grützmacher et al. 2004 Residual test Harmless Trichogramma cacoeciae Y oshizawa and Aiz awa 2007 Direct spray Harmless Orius strigicollis B acillus thurin giensis Brunner et al. 2001 Residual test Harmless Colpoclypeus fl orus Dutton et al. 2003 Gree nhouse experiments Increase in mortality, slight decrea se in weight Chrysoperla carnea 91 Pest Technology 2 (2), 87-97 ©2008 Global Science Books Tab le 1 (Cont. ) Reference Method Impact Biological con trol agent Pesticide Vie ira et al. 2001 Residual test Harmless Trichogramm a cordubensis Kohno et al. 2007 Direct applica tion Harmless Labidura riparia Beauveria bassiana Castagnoli et al. 2005 Residual test Harmless Neoseiulus cal ifornicus Amano and Haseeb 2005 Contact toxicity Harmful Diadegma semiclausum Oomyzus sokolowskii Emamectin benzo ate Y oshizawa and Aiz awa 2007 Direct spray Harmless Orius strigicollis Milbemectin Charles et al. 2000 Residual test Harmfu l Trich ogramma exig uum Spinosad Va n D r i e s c he et al. 2 006 Residue test Harmless Neoseiulus =Am b lyseius cucumeris Va n D r i e s c he et al. 2 006 Residue test Slightly harmf ul Iphiseius degenerans Galvan et al. 200 6b T opical application and direct spray Harmless Harmonia axyrid is Vill anueva and W algenbach 2005 Leaf disk Harmful Neoseiulus falla cis Neon icotinoids Vill anueva and W algenbach 2005 Leaf disk Moderately toxic Neoseiulus fal lacis Acetam iprid Cloyd and Dic k inson 2006 Direct applica tion Harmful Leptomastix dactyl opii Dinotefuran Kohno et al. 2007 Direct applica tion Slightly harml ess Labidura riparia Brunner et al. 2001 To pical application Hi ghly toxic Colpoclype us florus Imidacloprid Brunner et al. 2001 To pical application Hi ghly toxic Trich ogramma platneri Huerta et al. 2003 Topical applic ation Highly toxic Chrysoperla carnea Potter and Ro gers 2003 Residual test Decrease in parasitism Tiphia vernalis Vill anueva and W algenbach 2005 Leaf disk Moderately toxic Neoseiulus fal lacis Farag and Gesraha 2007 Direct applicatio n Slightly harmful Diaertiella rapa e Torres et al. 2003 Residual test Harmful Aphelinus gossypii; Delphastus pusil lus Thiamethoxam Mullin et al. 2005 Feedi ng treated seeds Highly toxic 10 Gener a of carabid beetl es Agonum, Amara, Anisodactylus, Bembidion, Chlaenius, Harpalus, Patrobus, Poecilus, Pteros- tichus, and Scarites Galvan et al. 200 6a Topical appl ication and insecticide residues Harmful Harmonia axy ridis Farag and Gesraha 2007 Direct applicatio n Slightly harmful Diaertiella rapa e Bot anicals Huerta et al. 2003 Topical applic ation Harmless Chrysoperla carnea Aceton ic fractions of Trichilia havanensis Saber et al. 2004 Residual test Reduced life table parameters Trichogramma cacoeciae Azadirachtin Thoeming and P oehling 2006 Soil -applied Harmless Amb lyseius cucu meris Thoeming and P oehling 2006 Soil-applied M o dera tely harmful Hypoaspis aculeifer Price and Schuster 1991 Contact toxicity Reduce the par asitoids papulation Encarsia sp. Extract of neem seed Peveling and E ly 2006 Insecticide residues Slightly harmful Chilocorus bipustul atus var. iranensis Melia volkens ii seed extract Peveling and E ly 2006 Insecticide residues Slightly harmful Pharoscymnus a nchorago Melia volkens ii seed extract Farag and Gesraha 2007 Direct applicatio n Harmless Diaert iella rapae Natural oi l of Jojoba plant Huerta et al. 2003 Topical applicat ion Harmful Chrysoperla carnea Natural pyrethrins Rao et al. 2007 Direct applica tion Slightly harm ful Campoletic chlori deae Neem Babul Hossain and Poehling 2006 Soil drench Harmless Opius chromatomyia e NeemAzal ® Kraiss and Culle n 2008 Direct spray laborat ory bioassays Highly toxic to first in star, harmless to thir d instar, pupae, or adul ts Harmonia axyrid is Pyrethrin s Castagnoli et al. 2000 Residual test Highly toxi c Neoseiu lus californic us Rotenone IGRs Y oshizawa and Aiz awa 2007 Direct spray Harmless Orius strigicollis Buprofezin Cabral et al. 2008 Direct spray Moderately harmful Coccinell a undecimpunctata Kobori and Amano 2004 Contact and ing estion toxicities Harmless Aphidius gif uensis C hlorfluazuron Amano and Haseeb 2005 Contact toxicity Harmless Di adegma semiclausum Oomyzus sokolowskii Kohno et al. 2007 Direct applica tion Harmless Labidura riparia Chromafenozide Bjorksten and Ro binson 2005 Cont act toxicity Harmless Hemiptarsenus varicornis Diglyphus isaea Cyromazine Y oshizawa and Aiz awa 2007 Direct spray Harmless Orius strigicollis Medina et al. 2003 T opical application Harmful Chrysoperla carnea Diflubenzuro n Y oshizawa and Aiz awa 2007 Direct spray Harmless Orius strigicollis Etoxazole Liu and Chen 2001 T opical application Modera tely harmful Chrysoperla rufilabris Fenoxycarb W akgari and Gil iomee 2003 Direct spray Moderately harmful Coccidoxenoid es peregrinus Amano and Haseeb 2005 Contact toxicity Harmless Di adegma semiclausum Oomyzus sokolowskii Flufenoxur on 92 Impacts of pesticides on arthro pod biological control agents. organism (DeCoen and Jan sse n 1997). The ecological rele- vance of CEA have been demonstrated by comparing with population level parameters such as intrinsic rate of in- crease (r m) and net reproductive rate (R 0) (De Coen and Janssen 1997; De Coen and Janss en 2003). Smolders et al. (2004) used this technique and concluded th at it is a rapid and sensitive measure of the effects of e nvironmental stress- sors and the results can be linked to eff ects in the higher levels of biologi cal organization. The CEA methodology has also been used successfully by Intern ational Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) (ICES 2006). As mentioned above, theoretically, one component of CEA methodology (i. ET S) is nearly common in all orga- nisms and conseque ntly has been ap plied for very diffe rent taxa; decomposer microorgan isms Szabó (2003), marine planktons (Packard et al. 1971), dif ferent daphnids (Simi and Brancelj1997), larval stage of chironomids (Sim i 2005) and zebra mussel (Fanslow et al. 2001). L ikewise, the other component, energy content, can be determin ed in all organisms. To date, except for one work in which the diff erences in energy allocation between brachypterous and macropterous morphs of the pygmy Grasshopper, Tetri x subulata were studied (Lock et al. 2006), the CEA methodology have been mostly applied for aquati c organisms. This method has been used for non-tar get organisms othe r than arthropod biocon- trol agents with the objective to environmental risk assess- ment (De Coen and Janssen 1997; De Coen and Jan ssen 2003; Smolders et al. 2003; V erslycke et al. 2004). Considering some applications of the CEA technique on arthropods (De Coen and Janssen 1997), especially on an insect (Lock et al. 2006) we are studying the capability of this method in case of plant pests and their natural enemies as a fast, sensitive and ecologically relevant measure of pes- ticides’ risk to BC agents (unpublished data). EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT CLASSES OF PESTICIDES ON BIOCONTROL AGENTS Most of the commonly used insecticides are w ide spectrum neurotoxic chemicals which affect target and non-tar get organisms. Some newly marketed pesticides are reported to be less toxic to natural enemies. Unfortunately many BC agents are susceptible to wide spectrum pesticides. There- fore a potential problem arising from the application of these pesticides is the disruption of beneficial arthropod populations important in BC processes. In IPM it is important to determine which pesticides are compatible with the major BC agents. The results of so me toxicity tests of major classes of pesticides on important BC agents are presented in Ta b l e 1. These classes include orga- nochlorine, organophosph orus, carbamates, pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, microbials, bo tanicals and Insect Growth Regulators (IGRs). The effect of pesticides on BC agents Tab le 1 (Cont. ) Reference Method Impact Biological con trol agent Pesticide Kobori and Amano 2004 Contact and ing estion toxicities Harmless Aphidius gif uensis Lufenuron Kohno et al. 2007 Direct applica tion Harmless Labidura riparia Methoxyfeno zide Grützmacher et al. 2004 Residual test Harmless Trichogramma ca coeciae Grützmacher et al. 2004 Residual test Harmless Trichogramma cacoeciae Medina et al. 2003 T opical application Harmless Chrysoperla carnea Pyri proxyfen W akgari and Gil iomee 2001 Residual test Harmful Aprostocetus ceroplastae Cloyd and Dic k inson 2006 Direct applica tion Harmless Leptomastix dac tylopii Medina et al. 2003 T opical application Harmless Chrysoperla carnea Tebufenozi de Amano and Haseeb 2005 Contact toxicity Harmless Di adegma semiclausum Oomyzus sokolowskii Te flubenzuron W akgari and Gil iomee 2001 Residual test Slightly harmful Aprostocetus c eroplastae Trifl umuro n W akgari and Gil iomee 2003 Direct spray Moderately harmful Coccidoxenoid es peregrinus Micellaneous classes of pesticides Y oshizawa and Aiz awa 2007 Direct spray Harmless Orius strigicollis Acequinocyl Ghadamyari an d T alebi 2002 Residual test Harmful Orius albidipen nis Amitraz Kobori and Amano 2004 Residual test Harmful Aphidius gifue nsis Cartap Amano and Haseeb 2005 Contact toxicity Harmful Diadegma semiclausum Oomyzus sokolowskii Chlorfenapyr Grützmacher et al. 2004 Residual test Harmless Trichogramma cacoeciae Dodine Sáenz-de-Ca bezón Irigaray and Zalom 2007 Residue test Harmful Gal endromus occidentalis Fenpyr oximate Morales et al. 2004 Ingestion toxicity Moderately Harmful Hy posoter didymator Fipronil Cloyd and Dic k inson 2006 Direct applica tion Harmful Leptomastix dactyl opii Flonicamid Kraiss and Culle n 2008 Direct spray; Laboratory bioassays Moderately lethal t o first and third larvae, no ef fect on pupae and adults Harmonia axyrid is Insecticidal soap Bjorksten and Ro binson 2005 Resid u al test Harmless Hemiptarsenus varicornis Mancozeb Kraiss and Culle n 2008 Direct spray; laboratory bioassays Moderately lethal t o first and third instars, no effect on pupae and adults Harmonia axyrid is Minera l oil Grützmacher et al. 2004 Residual test Moderately harmful Trichogramma cacoeciae Huerta et al. 2003 Topical bioass ays Harmless Chrysoperla carnea Ph loxine-B Rezaei et al. 2007 Residual test Harmless Chrysoperla carnea Propargite Y oshizawa and Aiz awa 2007 Direct spray Harmless Orius strigicollis Pymetrozine Rezaei et al. 2007 Residual test Harmless Chrysoperla carnea Cabral et al. 2008 Direct spray Harmless Coccinell a undecimpunctata Y oshizawa and Aiz awa 2007 Direct spray Harmless Orius strigicollis Pyri dalyl Kohno et al. 2007 Direct applica tion Harmless Labidura riparia James et al. 2005 Foliar application Moderately harmful Phytoseiid mites Sulfur Prischmann et al. 2005 Residue test Moderately harmful Phytoseiid mites Grützmacher et al. 2004 Residual test Harmful Trichogramma cacoecia e Thwaite et al. 1996 Residual test Mod erately harmful Typhlodromus pyri Tebuf enpyrad 93 Pest Technology 2 (2), 87-97 ©2008 Global Science Books depends on pesticides properties including mode of action, persistence and route to the target (Residual, quasi systemic and systemic action), etc. (V an Emden and Peakall 1996). Each pesticide has its own physical, chemical and bioche- mical properties and so its effect on a special natu ral enemy is different from other pesticides. Selective pesticides with low effects on natural enemy provide an oppo rtunity to use them in IPM. In the Table, different methods and formu lations of pes- ticides are used. Furthermore, the strain and life stage of a natural enemy is important in the classification of pesticide hazard. CONCLUSION In order to develop successful IPM programs many studies have been carried out to find out the probable compatibility of pesticides and arthropod biocontrol agen ts, the two major tools, in controlling plant pest species. However, diff erences in the used methods and the mea- sured endpoints make it diff icult to compare the results. The traditional laboratory methods have been shown as ineffici- ent leading to unreliable results. International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) initiated to develop standard methods which are validated and ring tested. These methods make it possible to determine the hazard classes of the toxic compounds. (1991) dem o nstrated the high va- lidity of the standardized laboratory results by conducting more complex field trials. The methods are being developed and currently there is a growing emphasis on demographic studies which incorporates all lethal and sublet hal effects as a summary index so called population growth rate. Life table assays provide more detailed information on the side- effects of pesticides. It has been shown that in contrast to some suggestions th e population growth rate is not more sensitive than the individual endpoints. On the other hand the most sensitive endpoints are not necessarily the best and most relevant ones. Detecting the potential damage to the populations in the early stages would be very helpful in protecting the bene- ficial insects. 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The ESA 2001 Annual Meeting: An Entomolo- gical Odys sey of ESA, San Diego, USA Y oshizawa H, Aizawa T (2007) Effects of p esticides on survival of the natura l insect preda tor Orius s trigicollis (Poppius). Bullet in of Gunma Agricultural Technology Center 4, 5-13 97... Pymetrozine acts by interfering on the nervous system regulating the feeding behavior, where after the herbivorous insect ingests this compound it ceases to feed which results in death due to starvation after a few days (Kristinsson 1994). In addition to its efficacy against whiteflies and aphids, pymetrozine has shown low impact on important parasitoids of these pest spe- cies ( Sechser et al. 1994), and key predator species ( Talebi et al. 2008). These results concur with our data regarding two important parasitoids of aphids, as well as B. vulgaris and all predators studied....... The results of chlorfenapyr and thiamethoxam with both forming a cluster show the consistence of the results among the tested insecticides and natural enemies with similar and high acute toxicity, and agree with data summarized in Talebi et al. (2008). Otherwise, the group formed by chlorantraniliprole and pymetrozine, followed by spinosad, indicate that these materials have reduced impact on natural enemies, especially the first two insec- ticides....... The organophosphate (OP) methidathion was included in the trial to represent one of the most used chemical groups for cotton pest control and was classified as a highly toxic insecticide. OPs are molecules with broad- spectrum of action and known high toxicity to natural enemies ( Talebi et al. OPs have been widely used to control cotton pests, especially boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh., whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn., boll worms, Helicoverpa spp....... To control these insect pests, insecticides are the most powerful tool to regulate the pest populations under check ( Gazzoni et al., 1999). The most commonly used insecticides are broad spectrum neurotoxic chemicals which influence both target and non-target insects (Talebi et al., 2008). Mostly, farmers prefer to use insecticides for quick results, as they most of the times, are not aware of the hazardous effects and recommended dosage of these insecticides which they are using against their target groups of insects (pests)....... The reduction of natural enemies is caused due to no-selective usage of insecticides that leads to serious problems especially the resurgence of new pests and the eruption of secondary pests (Fernades et al., 2010). Commonly used insecticides are broad spectrum neurotoxic poisons which affect target as well as non-target insects (Talebi et al., 2008). These wide spectrum insecticides pose potential threat to natural enemies (parasitoids) because of their common physiology with various pest species ( Liu et al., 2016).... Injudicious application of insecticides can cause a sharp reduction in the population of several predatory insects and mites including parasitoids. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of four insecticides (i. bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and acetamiprid) against the natural population of hymenopterous parasitoids parasitizing various pests of Alfalfa. When used against the pests of Alfalfa, these insecticides also affected the natural population of hymenopterous parasitoids significantly, resulting into ecological imbalance and making the crop more susceptible to pest infestation. This study has proved that bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and acetamiprid can cause a sharp decline of the population of twelve different hymenopterous parasitoids families of (trichogrammatidae, mymaridae, aphelinidae, encytidae, eulophidae, pteromalidae, eupelmidae, ichneumonidae, braconidae, proctotrupidae, platygastridae and scelionidae) with a detectable variation in their resistance to these insecticides. The comparison of means of survival percentage for different insecticides revealed that cypermenthrin caused the lowest mortality (highest survival percentage) to parasitoids followed by deltamenthrin, acetamiprid and bifenthrin to cause maximum mortality respectively (lowest survival percentage) to hymenopterous parasitoids. This would add further environmental concern to the natural population of several predatory insects as their viability will be significantly affected in different contaminative areas. Thus, such studies are also required to investigate the effects of other insecticides which have been extensively used for pest control.... Sustainable agricultural production is linked to the conservation of the biodiversity of the agroecosystem through advantageous organisms for phytosanitary protection (Talebi et al 2008, Tavares et al 2015. Figueiredo et al (2006) reported that the lack of natural enemies caused an increase in damages by Spodoptera frugiperda (J.... This chapter contains a brief explanation about the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, its characteristics, mode of action, and possible effects to nontarget organisms, especially the natural enemies. A nontarget organism is any individual that is present in genetically modified (GM) crop environment and is not the target of control by the toxic protein. The natural enemies, such as predators or parasitoids and entomopathogens, are agents of control of insect pests, which are essential to maintain the stability of agroecosystems. However, since the liberation of transgenic Bt crops, there has been a gradual increase in the use of this tool of control and, with this, an increasing concern about its possible effects on natural enemies. These organisms can be directly and indirectly affected; therefore, monitoring and studying how these organisms interact in GM plants are necessary. This chapter approaches manners to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of GM plants on natural enemies to help understand the compatibility of the use of GM crops with biological control.... Unfortunately, many biological control agents, such as natural enemies of pests, are susceptible to a broad spectrum of pesticides. This creates a potential problem when these two components are utilized together ( Talebi et al., 2008)....... Un- fortunately, many biological control agents are susceptible to a wide spectrum of pesticides. Therefore, a potential problem developing from the application of these pesticides is the disruption of beneficial ar- thropod populations important in biological control processes (Talebi et al., 2008)....... It has been observed that not only the mites are affected by the application of sublethal doses or pesticides residues, other organisms commonly used for the biological control are also exposed to changes in their demographic behavior and the functional response (Stark et al., 2004; Talebi et al., 2008, Sohrabi et al., 2014. In this case, mites exposed to sublethal concentrations did not show a change in their functional response, but positive in its efficiency ( Table 1; Figure 1).... The biological control used for the control of Tetranychus urticae (Koch) is the predator mite Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot). It is important to the know the effects of acaricides on the biological behavior the Abamectin on the functional response of P. persimilis. The functional response of the predator was of type II exposed to concentration of Abamectin, the functional response parameters: successful attack rate (a’), handling time (Th), search efficiency and the maximum predation theory (T/Th) were affected by the acaricide. The predator spends more time in persecute, dominate, consume and prepair it self to the next searching comparing with the proof subject an the predation ability was affected.... Data have been compiled about the interaction of insecticides and arthropod predators and parasitoids (Croft and Brown, 1975;Croft and Whalon, 1982;Theiling and Crof, 1988;Croft, 1990;Vogt 1994;Johnson and Tabashnik 1999;Vogt et al., 2001;Bastos and Torres, 2006; Talebi et al. 2008; Michaud, 2012;Crosariol Neto et al., 2014;Stanley and Preetha, 2016a, b;Williams, 2017;Kim et al., 2018;Stecca et al., 2018) and physiological selectivity gained by evolved resistance Rodrigues et al., 2013;Bielza, 2016). Many of these data are compiled in the "grey literature" such as tech- nical bulletins and cropping guide books ( Bastos and Torres, 2006;Corso 2008;Crosariol Neto et al., 2014;Williams, 2017).... In this study, we formulated pesticides from 12 products, namely machine oil EC, imidacloprid WP, thiamethoxam WP, acetamiprid WP, methidathion EC, acequinocyl WP, clothianidin WP, deltamethrin EC, mancozeb WP, benomyl WP, difenoconazole WP, and bitertanol WP. These 12 pesticides were selected to determine their toxicity to green lacewing, Chrysoperla nipponensis, at the maximum field recommended dosage under laboratory conditions. Machine oil EC had extremely detrimental effects on eggs of C. nipponensis, resulting in 99% mortality (categorized as Class IV) when eggs were treated with machine oil EC by dipping. Mean larval corrected mortalities (%) for methidathion EC and deltamethrin EC were 62. 5% (categorized as Class II) and 87. 5% (categorized as Class III) respectively, when larvae were topically treated. As a result of dipping treatments of pupae with pesticides, machine oil EC and thiamethoxam WP were classified as slightly harmful (categorized as Class II). Methidathion EC showed high toxicity, resulting in a total effect index rate 100% (categorized as Class IV). Taxonomical notes of the genus Chrysoperla and C. nipponensis are reviewed here. The cotton ecosystem comprises various arthropod pest and natural enemies with simultaneous occurrence irrespective of growing region. The use of insecticides with reduced impact on natural enemies is a major goal to conserve them and, therefore, to reduce populations of arthropod pests. The survival of twelve key natural enemies for cotton pest management exposed to dried residues using the highest and lowest recommended rates representing old and new insecticides recommended to control cotton pests (chlorantraniliprole, chlofernapyr, spinosad, lambda-cyhalotrin, methidathion, pymetrozine, and thiamethoxam) was determined. The study included parasitoids [Aphelinus gossypii Timberlake, Bracon vulgaris Ashmead, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson), Telenomus podisi (Ashmead), Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley)] and predators [Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Euborellia annulipes (Lucas), Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas), Solenopsis invicta Buren), Orius insidiosus (Say), Chrysoperla externa Hagen and Eriopis connexa (Germar)], with two different cohorts for these last two species. All natural enemies exposed to methidathion exhibited 100% mortality. Thiamethoxam, lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorfenapyr also caused high mortality of P. nigrispinus, S. invicta, H. convergens, O. insidiosus and all tested parasitoids. Among the natural enemies, E. annulipes exhibited high survival when exposed to all tested insecticides, except methidathion. Chlorantraniliprole and pymetrozine caused overall lower impact on the natural enemies tested followed by spinosad; hence, they are options for cotton pest management. Furthermore, the outcomes highlight the implication of knowing the background susceptibility of the species tested when addressing the impact of insecticides on natural enemies. Features. Presents a balanced overview of environmentally safe and ecologically sound practices. Examines specific ecological measures to prevent or lessen insect pest infestation of crops. Covers environmentally acceptable physical control measures to prevent insect pests from entering greenhouses and causing damage. Includes recommended formulations and applications of insecticides targeted against destructive pests Insect pest control continues to be a challenge for agricultural producers and researchers. Insect resistance to commonly used pesticides and the removal of toxic pesticides from the market have taken their toll on the ability of agricultural producers to produce high quality, pest-free crops within economical means. In addition to this, they must not endanger their workers or the environment. We depend on agriculture for food, feed, and fiber, making it an essential part of our economy. Many people take agriculture for granted while voicing concern over adverse effects of agricultural production practices on the environment. Insect Pest Management presents a balanced overview of environmentally safe and ecologically sound practices for managing insects. This book covers specific ecological measures, environmentally acceptable physical control measures, use of chemical pesticides, and a detailed account of agronomic and other cultural practices. It also includes a chapter on state-of-the-art integrated pest management based, a section on biological control, and lastly a section devoted to legal and legislative issues. Insect Pest Management approaches its subject in a systematic and comprehensive manner. It serves as a useful resource for professionals in the fields of entomology, agronomy, horticulture, ecology, and environmental sciences, as well as to agricultural producers, industrial chemists, and people concerned with regulatory and legislative issues. The primary interest in beneficial insects originates from organizations like the IOBC working group ‘Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms’ who attempted to identify plant protection products that could be used together with the introduction of insects for biological control (Hassan et al., 1985; Hassan, 1989). Nowadays, a broader approach is common (‘European Standard Characteristics of Beneficial Regulatory Testing (ESCORT) workshop’: Barrett et al., 1994). The application of a pesticide should have no unacceptable effect generally on non-target organisms, including beneficials as well as other non-target species. The use of pyrethroid insecticides at recommended rates of application have no deleterious long-term effects on microorganisms or microbial processes. Aquatic invertebrates are the most susceptible organisms to pyrethroids. Selected groups, most noticeably mayflies, may be drastically affected for entire season; others experience only short-term reductions in numbers. Low levels of pyrethroids also cause invertebrate drift and other behavioral changes. Selected nontarget terrestrial invertebrates are also susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides. -from Authors Ecotoxicology is an emerging field of study that attempts to combine ecological and toxicological principles so that more realistic estimates of environmental damage by xenobiotics can be made. However, ecotoxicology is dominated by toxicology, and calls to ‘put the ecology into ecotoxicology’ have been virtually ignored (Baird et al., 1996). The effectiveness of parasitoids as biological control agents can be constrained by insecticide use, not only through direct mortality but also as a result of sublethal effects. Several pest aphids have become resistant to a range of insecticides and a resistant strain of Myzus persicae was used in laboratory experiments to investigate sublethal effects of the insecticides pirimicarb and dimethoate on the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae. Both insecticides produced sublethal effects on D. rapae when the parasitoid attacked and developed in aphids that had been dipped in insecticide solutions. Dimethoate affected oviposition behaviour; females were apparently repelled by residues on the surface of dipped aphids, thus reducing their attack rate and hence the number of mummies produced. Also, the reproductive performance of parasitoids that had developed in pirimicarb-dipped aphids appeared to be adversely affected, in comparison with parasitoids that emerged from uncontaminated hosts, and this was reflected both in lower mummy production and lower attack rates. Pirimicarb, but not dimethoate, affected the sex ratio of the offspring of D. rapae that had developed in dipped aphids, causing a significant increase in the proportion of males. This only occurred when the male parent had developed in a pirimicarb-dipped aphid, suggesting that the effect involves male sterility or mating behaviour, although they appeared to mate normally. These sublethal effects are potential constraints on the efficiency and effectiveness of D. rapae as a biological control agent of aphid pests, but to assess fully their potential impact further studies need to be done using more realistic extended laboratory and semi-field techniques. Effects of sublethal exposure to triflumuron on the biological performance of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch were analysed under laboratory conditions. Survivorship was affected by the compound. Triflumuron caused a reduction both in the percentage of eggs that developed to adults and in the survival of adult stage. Triflumuron also affected the fecundity. The net reproductive rate (R0), the intrinsic rate of increase (r m), and the finite rate of increase (λ) of treated females were lower than in those non treated, resulting in a reduction of population growth. These results suggest that triflumuron could be a valuable addition in integrated pest management programs of T. urticae, although more laboratory, semi-field and field testing is required. Tetrazolium reduction and enzyme kinetics were examined to estimate the ETS activity of decomposing reed (Phragmites australis /Cav. / Trin. ) rhizome to collect information on the activity of microbial decomposers. Optimal incubation time was determined at 22 °C. For complete enzyme extraction, 4-6 min. of homogenization was necessary. The main substrates of the enzymatic reaction were NADH and NADPH. The reaction was fastest when 2-(-p-iodophenyl)-3-(-p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride (INT; 0. 8 mM), NADPH (0. 25 mM) and NADH (1. 7 mM) were applied simultaneously. The optimal incubation time should be less than 20 minutes. The pH optimum of the enzyme reaction is 8. 0-8. 4. ETS activity of decomposing reed rhizome can be used to estimate potentially the oxygen consumption of microorganisms involved in decomposition and, indirectly, the rate of decomposition. Using a direct spraying test in the laboratory, nine Bt insecticides, a Beauveria bassiana insecticide, two IGRs (methoxyfenozide and chromafenozide), and a synthetic insecticide (pyridalyl) were determined to be harmless and a synthetic insecticide (dinotefuran) was determined to be slightly harmful to second instar Labidura riparia nymphs, which are regarded as an important natural mortality factor against insect pests in various crop fields. The use of these insecticides should be recommended in IPM programs to control cabbage insect pests, since they are regarded as being compatible with the conservation of L. riparia in the field. The copepod Eurytemora affinis and the cladoceran Daphnia pulex were cultured at sublethal concentrations of dieldrin to test the usefulness of the intrinsic rate of population increase, r, as a bioassay statistic. The 48-hr LC50 for E. affinis was 23 μg/L, but population growth rate measured by the life table method was only 12% of its control value at 5 μg/L and was zero at 10 μg/L, indicating a substantial sublethal effect. In contrast, D. pulex had a higher EC50 (251 μg/L) and showed little impairment of population growth potential below 220 μg/L. The authors suggest that the cladoceran was less sensitive than the copepod in both short- and long-term tests because of its simpler life cycle and larger size at hatching. The life table estimate of r appears to be an ecologically realistic measure of sublethal stress and requires an equivalent or shorter time to conduct than conventional long-term tests. The effects of fenpyroximate (Fujimite®), acequinocyl (Kanemite®), etoxazole (Zeal®), spiromesifen (Oberon®) and bifenezate (Acramite®) on adult female Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) survival, fecundity and fertility were assessed following exposure to leaf surface residue and direct contact. Exposure to leaf surface residues of either bifenezate or acequinocyl did not affect fecundity or egg hatch, while spiromesifen decreased fecundity and etoxazole reduced egg hatch. Treating adult females with bifenezate, acequinocyl or spiromesifen reduced fecundity but did not reduce egg hatch, while etoxazole reduced both fertility and fecundity. Fenpyroximate killed all of the females by either method of exposure. Total effects on female G. occidentalis varied among chemicals. Knowledge of specific effects of these acaricides on spider mite predators may facilitate their use in integrated pest management programs.

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Having seen most of Federico Fellini's movies, any viewer who not only watches the films but experiences the cinema may draw the conclusion that the director changed his style over the years. In other words, he turned to be more "skeptical" more "knowledgeable" and more "dreamlike." To realize that, we have to consider his earliest films - his honeymoon period - for clearer understanding of the change. The movie that resembles Fellini's freshness most is LO SCEICCO BIANCO. Here, it is hardly the Fellini we know from JULIET OF THE SPIRITS or CITY OF WOMEN. It is a fresh, genuine, young Fellini where some viewers even fail to recognize the director. Nevertheless, if one watches the film more deeply, it is possible to notice something characteristic of Fellini. To make it more clear, let me briefly look at the content first.
A young couple from the provincial part of Italy, Ivan Cavalli (Leopoldo Trieste) and Wanda Giardino Cavalli (Brunella Bovo) come to Rome for their honeymoon. Here, mind you that honeymoon symbolizes not only the mutual freshness, appreciation but also the lack of boredom resulting from routine of life. The honeymoon also appears to be the sort of "illusive prelude" to the everyday. Ivan is very strict, honorable and plans the visit exactly to the very letter with the schedule list which contains introducing of his wife to his noble family, sightseeing of Rome and the climax of the stay: the audience at the pope's. Wanda, however, is more "light hearted" enthusiastically absorbed in arts of 24th May Street and aims rather at adventure than at the formal side of the visit. When they enter the Tre Fiori Hotel, she soon disappears fleeing into the world of her dreams, illusions and fantasies. Will she find the stay at her illusive world of a white sheik (Lo Sceicco Bianco) more comfortable and convincing?
While analyzing the content (not revealing more of it) I think that this is one of the movies where Fellini is mostly HIMSELF. He touches similar themes like in his later movies, including social criticism, formality in relations, dominance, destructive illusions, social discrepancies, and disillusion. Yet, he remains absolutely clear. Criticizing social conventions, he aims at addressing the problem: what should the marital status be like? While discussing dominance, he seems to draw our attention to the different personalities of the couple. Most importantly, however, Fellini develops the destructive effect of illusions, which he would do in many of his later films, paying attention to Wanda's fanatic idolatry and fantasies: real life is a dream." When she enters the 24th May Street and, more strictly, when she meets the white sheik, isn't that Cabiria entering the house of Alberto Lazzari in Fellini 1957 movie? Is the world of art separated from the ordinary world? Had Wanda better just get the autograph and a cigarette as a souvenir and leave in order not to be led into unpleasant disillusion?
But, according to my deeper analysis of the themes, you may falsely conclude that the movie is pretty psychological. In no way! It is a humorous story, witty adventure with moments at which you will rather split your side than reflect. The atmosphere is perfect for ordinary viewers as well as Fellini buffs. It is not a Felliniesque movie but reveals more the characteristics of I VITELLONI, LA STRADA and NIGHTS OF CABIRIA. Moreover, LO SCEICCO BIANCO can boast wonderful cinematography with really well managed images. Concerning wit, the most memorable moments for me were two, in fact. One being Ivan who gets informed where Wanda is and, consequently, his sentence: Dear uncle, the name of Cavalli. ends with "we will meet in the Vatican at 11 o'clock. The other being the final moment when the noble family at last gets to know Wanda, the uncle says "Wanda Carissima. dearest Wanda) and their memorable walk towards St Peter's Basilica. Except for the two, there are many other witty moments that I won't reveal now. You must see the film. As far as camera is concerned, the absolute visual masterwork for me was the first view of the white sheik. We see him illusively, like Wanda regards him. And another strong point to be mentioned here: the wonderful music by Nino Rota, a mainstay in Fellini's films. UNFORGETTABLE!
The performances of the movie constitute the different aspect I'd like to discuss in the separate paragraph. There are many non professionals but it does not reduce the value of the movie. The cast do extraordinary jobs, including the leading couple: Leopoldo Trieste and Brunella Bovo as well as Alberto Sordi in the role of the white sheik and many of the supporting cast. Here, it is important to mention that Fellini had that very significant flair for casting people. But, the most important fact is that we can see Giulietta Masina in LO SCEICCO BIANCO. She biria, different one than a few years later. She appears in one scene but what a terrific performance it is! For me, it was the best scene of the movie. Masina is given very little time on screen in an undeveloped role, yet we all get the clear point of her portrayal and once you see her, you never forget her.
Very good film that I highly recommend anyone to see! To me, it appeared as if a "cinematic honeymoon" period of Fellini, of his skillful direction, of his themes' development and the particular charm that he skipped later. LO SCEICCO BIANCO is what movies have best: entertainment and education. Who was Wanda's white sheik in the end? Don't we also have "white sheiks" in our lives that lead us more often into illusions and, unfortunately, more rarely into disillusions? 9/10.



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